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Sand, Wiapio Beach, Hawaii, Hawaii Under the Microscope

Sand, Wiapio Beach, Hawaii, Hawaii

This sand sample was collected at the beach in Wiapio Valley, Hawaii. This is the same field of view as the prior image but with condenser central stop Dispersion staining. The grain at upper central is in an optic axis orientation and shows the color for the beta refractive index in the 1.680 refractive index liquid. This red-magenta color corresponds to a wavelength match at about 560 nanometers, 1.683. The blue of the grain at lower center corresponds to a match close to the gamma refractive index at about 460 nanometers, 1.70. These olivines are in the Fo87-90 range (see Deer, Howie, and Zussman).

Transmitted Central Stop Dispersion Staining with One Linear Polarizing Filter, 1.680 Refractive Index HD Liquid


Significance in the Environment:

Characteristic Features:

Associated Particles:


Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ROCK-FORMING MINERALS, Longman Scientific & Technical, 1992.

Greenberg, Gary, A GRAIN OF SAND: NATURE'S SECRET WONDER, Voyageur Press, 2008.

Welland, Michael, SAND: THE NEVER ENDING STORY, University of California Press, 2009.
(Good Information on the microscopy of sand, Great site for more information on microscopy in general)
(Good Information on Sand with links to more information on sand),com_mediadb/task,play/idstr,Open-feeds_fsc_exploring_sedimentary_processes_fsc02_02_m4v/vv,-2/Itemid,97
(Brief, very informative video on what can be learned from the shape of a sand grain.)