Transmitted Oblique Off Crossed Circular Polarized Light
KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata CLASS: Mammalia ORDER: Carnivora SUBORDER: Pinnipedia FAMILY: Phocidae GENUS: Phoca
Significance in the Environment:
This is a fur used in coats, wraps, and other articles of clothing. Its presence in an indoor environment is generally indicative of clothing.
Seal hair is around 20 micrometers wide and about 5 micrometers thick over most of its body. Visual evidence of the medulla is absent. The
cuticle pattern is imbricate acuminate over the entire length. The scale count is about 3 to 4 per 100 micrometers over most of its length and
a little higher, about 6 per 100 micrometers, near the root and termination. Seal hair has a refractive index along its length of about 1.56
and perpendicular to its length of about 1.55. It has a birefringence of about 0.01 and a positive sign of elongation.
References with Photographs and/or Drawings
Hausman, Leon Augustus, "Structural charactreistics of the hair of mammals", THE AMERICAN NATURALIST, vol. 54, no. 635, pp.496-523,
Hausman, Leon Augustus, "Recent studies of hair structure relationships", THE SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY, pp. 258-277,
Glaister, John, A STUDY OF HAIRS AND WOOLS, Misr Press, Cairo, 1931.
FBI site for Animal Hair Identification: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2004/research/2004_03_research02.htm
Mayer, William V., "The hair of California mammals with keys to the dorsal guard hairs of California mammals", THE AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST,
vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 480-512, 1952.
Stains, Howard J., "Field key to guard hair of middle western furbearers", JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, vol. 22, no.1, pp. 95-97, January, 1958.
Mathiak, Harold A., "A key to hairs of the mammals of southern Michigan", JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 251-268, October, 1938.